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Claridge, John PA Management Consultants Ltd. Abstract Hook-up and commissioning is a critical phase in the successful development of an phase in the successful development of an offshore oil production problems of carrying out major works at a remo. 23 Feb None of it MEANS anything because college is an artificial situation. Similarities to life are there but they aren't what it's REALLY about. The discipline of the workplace is around but is not paramount. Experimentation and trying to find one's way in unfamiliar social situations are what you're SUPPOSED to. carbon Carbon with 6 protons and 8 neutrons is called carbon (14C). This is an unstable radioactive isotope. About 1 in carbon atoms . Radiocarbon years. Radiocarbon years are reckoned as "before present", present being defined as AD which was when the method was first developed. It is important.

It is nonmetallic and tetravalent —making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crustand the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogenheliumand oxygen.

Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compoundsand its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life. It is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass about The atoms of carbon can bond together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon.

The best known are graphitediamondand amorphous carbon. For example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is highly transparent. Graphite is a good electrical conductor while diamond has a low electrical conductivity.

Under normal conditions, diamond, carbon nanotubesand graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials. All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form at standard temperature and pressure. They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen. The largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestonesdolomites and carbon dioxidebut significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coalpeatoiland methane clathrates.

Carbon forms a vast number of compoundsmore than any other element, with almost What Is The Definition Of Carbon Hookup million compounds described to date, [19] and yet that number is but a fraction of the number of theoretically possible compounds under standard conditions.

What Is The Definition Of Carbon Hookup

For this reason, carbon has often been referred to as the "king of the elements". The allotropes of carbon include graphiteone of the softest known substances, and diamondthe hardest naturally occurring substance.

It bonds readily with other small atoms including other carbon atoms, and is capable of forming multiple stable covalent bonds with suitable, multivalent atoms. Carbon is known to form almost ten million different compounds, a large majority of all chemical compounds.

At atmospheric pressure it has no melting point as its triple point is at For example, graphite can be oxidised by hot concentrated nitric acid at standard conditions to mellitic acidClick at this page 6 CO 2 H 6which preserves the hexagonal units of graphite while breaking up the larger structure. Thus, irrespective of its allotropic form, carbon remains solid at higher temperatures than the highest melting point metals such as tungsten or rhenium.

Although thermodynamically prone to oxidationcarbon resists oxidation more effectively than elements such as iron and copper that are weaker reducing agents at room temperature. Carbon is the sixth element, with a ground-state electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p What Is The Definition Of Carbon Hookupof which the four outer electrons are valence electrons.

Its first four ionisation energies, The electronegativity of carbon is 2. Carbon's covalent radii are normally taken as In general, covalent radius decreases with lower coordination number and higher bond order. Carbon compounds form the basis of all known life on Earthand the carbon-nitrogen cycle provides some of the energy produced by the Sun and other stars.

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Although it forms an extraordinary variety of compounds, most forms of carbon are comparatively unreactive under normal conditions. At standard temperature and pressure, it resists all but the strongest oxidizers. It does not react with sulfuric acidhydrochloric acidchlorine or any alkalis.

At elevated temperatures, carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon oxidesand will rob oxygen from metal oxides to leave the elemental metal. This exothermic reaction is used in the iron and steel industry to smelt iron and to control the carbon content of steel:.

David Plotz asserts that Jeremiah is a traitor for his continual harping on Judah's imminent destruction at the hands of Babylon. More in Family Fray. Oxides Metal carbonyls Carbonic acid Bicarbonates Carbonates. We don't grow wilder or out of control, we don't grow up to be criminals. Test your vocabulary with our question quiz!

Carbon combines with some metals at high temperatures to form metallic carbides, such as the iron carbide cementite in steel, and tungsten carbidewidely used as an abrasive and for making hard tips for cutting tools. Atomic carbon is a very short-lived species and, therefore, carbon is stabilized in various multi-atomic structures with different molecular configurations called allotropes.

The three relatively well-known allotropes of carbon are amorphous carbongraphiteand diamond.

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Once considered exotic, fullerenes are nowadays commonly synthesized and used in research; they include buckyballs[30] [31] carbon nanotubes[32] carbon nanobuds [33] and nanofibers. As ofgraphene appears to be the strongest material ever tested.

Carbon: The Element of Life

It could also be used to safely store hydrogen for use in a hydrogen based engine in cars. The amorphous form is an assortment of carbon atoms in a non-crystalline, irregular, glassy What Is The Definition Of Carbon Hookup, not held in a crystalline macrostructure.

It is present as a powder, and is the main constituent of substances such as charcoallampblack soot and activated carbon. At normal pressures, carbon takes the form of graphite, in which each atom is bonded trigonally to three others in a plane composed of fused hexagonal rings, just like those in aromatic hydrocarbons.

This gives graphite its softness and its cleaving properties the sheets slip easily past one another. This results in a lower bulk electrical conductivity for carbon than for most metals. The delocalization also accounts for the energetic stability of graphite over diamond at room temperature. At source high pressures, carbon forms the more compact allotrope, diamondhaving nearly twice the density of graphite.

Here, each atom is bonded tetrahedrally to four others, forming a 3-dimensional network of puckered six-membered rings of atoms. Diamond has the same cubic structure as silicon and germaniumand because of the strength of the carbon-carbon bondsit is the hardest naturally occurring substance measured by resistance to scratching. The bottom left corner of the phase diagram for carbon has not been scrutinized experimentally.

Fullerenes are a synthetic crystalline formation with a graphite-like structure, but in place of hexagonsfullerenes are formed of pentagons or even heptagons of carbon atoms. The missing or additional atoms warp the sheets into spheres, ellipses, or cylinders.

The properties of fullerenes split into buckyballs, buckytubes, and nanobuds have not yet been fully analyzed and represent an intense area of research in nanomaterials. The names "fullerene" and "buckyball" are given after Richard Buckminster Fullerpopularizer of geodesic domeswhich resemble the structure of fullerenes.

The buckyballs are fairly large molecules formed completely of carbon bonded trigonally, forming spheroids the best-known and simplest is the soccerball-shaped C 60 buckminsterfullerene. Of the other discovered allotropes, carbon nanofoam is a ferromagnetic allotrope discovered in It consists of a low-density cluster-assembly of carbon atoms strung together in a loose three-dimensional web, in which the atoms are bonded trigonally in six- and seven-membered rings.

Linear acetylenic carbon [39] has the chemical structure [39] - C Carbon in this modification is linear with sp orbital hybridization, and is a polymer with alternating single and triple bonds.

Ina team at the North Carolina State University announced the development of another allotrope they have dubbed Q-carboncreated by a high energy low duration laser pulse on amorphous carbon dust. Q-carbon is reported to exhibit ferromagetism, fluorescenceand a hardness superior to diamonds. Carbon is the fourth most abundant chemical element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen.

Carbon is abundant in the Sunstarscometsand in the atmospheres of most planets. PAHs seem to have been formed "a couple of billion years" after the Big Bangare widespread throughout the universe, and are associated with new stars and exoplanets. It has been estimated that the solid earth as a whole contains ppm of carbon, with ppm in the core and ppm in the combined mantle and crust. This is much more than the amount of carbon in the oceans or atmosphere below.

Hydrocarbons such as coalpetroleumand natural gas contain carbon as well. Carbon is also found in methane hydrates in polar regions and under the seas. Various estimates put this carbon betweenGt[56] or 3, Gt. In the past, quantities of hydrocarbons were greater. According to one source, in the period from to about gigatonnes of carbon were released as carbon dioxide to the atmosphere from burning of fossil fuels.

Natural diamonds occur in the rock kimberlitefound in ancient volcanic "necks", or "pipes". Diamonds are now also being recovered from the ocean floor off the Cape of Good Hope. Carbon-rich asteroids are relatively preponderant in the outer parts of the asteroid belt in our solar system.

These asteroids have not yet been directly sampled by scientists. The asteroids can be used in hypothetical space-based carbon miningwhich may be possible in the future, but is currently technologically impossible. Isotopes of carbon are atomic nuclei that contain six protons plus a number of neutrons varying from 2 to Carbon has two stable, naturally occurring isotopes.

Carbon 14 C is a naturally occurring radioisotopecreated in the upper atmosphere lower stratosphere and upper troposphere by interaction of nitrogen with cosmic rays. The amount of 14 C in the atmosphere and in living organisms is almost constant, but decreases predictably in their bodies after death.

There are 15 known isotopes of carbon and the shortest-lived of these is 8 C which decays through proton emission and alpha decay and has a half-life of 1.

Formation of the carbon atomic nucleus requires a nearly simultaneous triple collision of alpha particles helium nuclei within the core of a giant or supergiant star which is known as the triple-alpha processas the products of further nuclear fusion reactions of helium with hydrogen or another helium nucleus produce lithium-5 and beryllium-8 respectively, both of which are highly unstable and decay almost instantly back into smaller nuclei.

According to current physical cosmology theory, carbon is formed in the interiors of stars in the horizontal branch What Is The Definition Of Carbon Hookup the collision and transformation of three helium nuclei. This dust becomes component material for the formation of second or third-generation star systems with accreted planets. The CNO cycle is an additional fusion mechanism that powers stars, wherein carbon operates as a catalyst.

Rotational transitions of various isotopic forms of carbon monoxide for example, 12 CO, 13 CO, and 18 CO are detectable in the submillimeter wavelength range, and are used in the study of newly forming stars in molecular clouds. Under terrestrial conditions, conversion of one element to another is very rare.

Therefore, the amount of carbon on Earth is effectively constant. Thus, processes that use carbon must obtain it What Is The Definition Of Carbon Hookup somewhere and dispose of it somewhere else. The paths of carbon in the environment form the carbon cycle.

For example, photosynthetic plants draw carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or seawater and build it into biomass, as in the Calvin cyclea process of carbon fixation.

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Some of this biomass is eaten by animals, while some carbon is exhaled by animals as carbon dioxide. The carbon cycle is considerably more complicated than this short loop; for example, some carbon dioxide is dissolved in the oceans; if bacteria do not consume it, dead plant or animal matter may become petroleum or coalwhich releases carbon when burned. Carbon can form very long chains of interconnecting carbon—carbon bondsa property that is called catenation.

Carbon-carbon bonds are strong and stable.

What Is The Definition Of Carbon Hookup

Through catenation, carbon forms a countless number of compounds. A tally of unique compounds shows that more contain carbon that those that do not. The simplest form of an organic molecule is the hydrocarbon —a large family of organic molecules that are composed of hydrogen atoms bonded to a chain of carbon atoms. Chain length, side chains and functional groups all affect the properties of organic molecules.

Carbon occurs in all known organic life and is the basis of organic chemistry.