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Robert Dudley: Queen Elizabeth I’s great love

8 Feb Elizabeth I is remembered in history as the Virgin Queen. She was the daughter of Henry VIII by his second wife Anne Boleyn and in stark contrast to her much- married father, she famously declared: “I will have but one mistress here, and no master.” During the course of her long reign, she was besieged by. Even though Elizabeth was Queen, members of the Privy Council still felt that it was their right and duty to persuade Elizabeth that marriage was for the best of the nation. We do know that Elizabeth had a huge sense of duty to her country but whether she ever really intended to get married is open to debate. Many European. 14 Apr Over the years, countless books, novels, plays and films have depicted Elizabeth I's relationships with figures such as Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester; Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, and the Duke of Anjou. In the absence of conclusive proof one way or another, the question 'did they or didn't they?.

Her half-brother, Edward VIruled until his death inbequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters, Elizabeth and the Roman Catholic Maryin spite of statute law to the contrary. Edward's will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Mary's reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels. InElizabeth succeeded her half-sister to the throne and set out to rule by good counsel.

One of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. It was expected that Elizabeth would marry and produce an heir to continue the Tudor line. She never did, despite numerous courtships. As she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity. A cult grew around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, and literature of the day. In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and half-siblings had been.

Did Queen Elizabeth 1 Get Married

After the pope declared her illegitimate in and released her subjects from obedience to her, several conspiracies threatened her life, all of which were defeated with the help of her ministers' secret service. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the major powers of France and Spain.

She only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France, and Ireland.

But there does not seem to be any evidence that Elizabeth was keen to marry and that she was merely going through the motions. He intended to seize the queen but few rallied to his support, and he was beheaded on 25 February. It is one of the most successful matches, only topped by the match of Cancer man and Scorpio woman, and Robert Dudley did go on to marry a Scorpio woman, his second wife Lettice. Louis Sacraments Eucharist Mary Saints. Lacey, RobertRobert Earl of Essex:

By the mids, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. England's defeat of the Spanish Armada in associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history. Elizabeth's reign is known as the Elizabethan era.

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The period is famous for the flourishing of English dramaled by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marloweand for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, [5] who enjoyed more than her share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity.

Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor in an era when government was ramshackle and limited, and when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones. Such was the case with Elizabeth's rival, Mary, Queen of Read morewhom she imprisoned in and had executed in After the short reigns of Elizabeth's half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity.

Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace and was named after both her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard. Her mother was Henry's Did Queen Elizabeth 1 Get Married wife, Anne Boleyn. At birth, Elizabeth was the heir presumptive to the throne of England. Her older half-sister, Maryhad lost Did Queen Elizabeth 1 Get Married position as a legitimate heir when Henry annulled his marriage to Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragonto marry Anne, with the intent to sire a male heir and ensure the Here succession.

Elizabeth was two years and eight months old when her mother was beheaded on 19 May[10] four months after Catherine of Aragon's death from natural causes.

Elizabeth was declared illegitimate and deprived of her place in the royal succession. From his birth, Edward was undisputed heir apparent to the throne. Elizabeth was placed in his household and carried the chrisomor baptismal cloth, at his christening. Elizabeth's first governess or Lady MistressMargaret Bryanwrote that she was "as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as ever I knew any in my life". French, FlemishItalian and Spanish. Under Grindal, a talented and skilful tutor, she also progressed in French and Greek.

By the time her formal education ended inElizabeth was one of the best educated women of her generation. The Venetian ambassador stated in that she "possessed [these] languages so thoroughly that each appeared to be her native tongue".

The couple took Elizabeth into their household at Chelsea. There Elizabeth experienced an emotional crisis that some historians believe affected her for the rest of her life. These included entering her bedroom in his nightgown, tickling her and slapping her on the buttocks. Parr, rather than confront her husband over his inappropriate activities, joined in.

Did Queen Elizabeth 1 Get Married she accompanied him in tickling Elizabeth, and once held her while he cut her black gown "into a thousand pieces. However, Thomas Seymour continued scheming to control the royal family and tried to have himself appointed the governor of the King's person. Elizabeth, living at Hatfield Housewould admit nothing. Her stubbornness exasperated her interrogator, Sir Robert Tyrwhitt, who reported, "I do see it in her face that she is guilty".

Edward VI died on 6 Julyaged just click for source Lady Jane was proclaimed queen by the Privy Council, but her support quickly crumbled, and she was deposed after nine days. On 3 AugustMary rode triumphantly into London, with Elizabeth at her side. The show of solidarity between the sisters did not last long.

Mary, a devout Catholic, was determined to crush the Protestant faith in which Elizabeth had been educated, and she ordered that everyone attend Catholic Mass; Elizabeth had to outwardly conform.

In January and FebruaryWyatt's rebellion broke out; it was soon suppressed. Elizabeth fervently protested her innocence.

Mary's closest confidant, Charles V's ambassador Simon Renardargued that her throne would never be safe while Elizabeth lived; and the Chancellor, Stephen Gardinerworked to have Elizabeth put on trial. Instead, on 22 May, Elizabeth was moved from the Tower to WoodstockDid Queen Elizabeth 1 Get Married she was to spend almost a year under house arrest in the charge of Sir Henry Bedingfield. Crowds cheered her all along the way. On 17 AprilElizabeth was recalled to court to attend the final stages of Mary's apparent pregnancy.

If Mary and her child died, Elizabeth would become queen. If, on the other hand, Mary gave birth to a healthy child, Elizabeth's chances of becoming queen would read article sharply. When it became clear that Mary was not pregnant, no one believed any longer that she could have a child. King Philip, who ascended the Spanish throne inacknowledged the new political reality and cultivated his sister-in-law.

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She was a better ally than the chief alternative, Mary, Queen of Scotswho had grown up in France and was betrothed to the Dauphin of France. By OctoberElizabeth was already making plans for her government. On 6 November, Mary recognised Elizabeth as her heir. Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25, and declared her intentions to her Council and other peers who had come to Hatfield to swear allegiance. The speech contains the first record of her adoption of the mediaeval political theology of the sovereign's "two bodies": My lords, the law of nature moves go here to sorrow for my sister; the burden that is fallen upon me makes me amazed, and yet, considering I am God's creature, ordained to obey His click, I will thereto yield, desiring from the bottom of my heart that I may have assistance of His grace to be the minister of His heavenly will in this office now committed to me.

Tudor conquest of Ireland. Some historians have called her lucky; [] she believed that God was protecting her. As we all know, that route would have raised huge problems for the queen.

And as I am but one body naturally considered, though by His permission a body politic to govern, so shall I Did Queen Elizabeth 1 Get Married you all I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel. As her triumphal progress wound through the city on the eve of the coronation ceremonyshe was welcomed wholeheartedly by the citizens and greeted Did Queen Elizabeth 1 Get Married orations and pageants, most with a strong Protestant flavour.

Elizabeth's open and gracious responses endeared her to the spectators, who were "wonderfully ravished". She was then presented for the people's acceptance, amidst a deafening noise of organs, fifes, trumpets, drums, source bells.

Elizabeth's personal religious convictions have been much debated by scholars. She was a Protestant, but kept Catholic symbols such as the crucifixand downplayed the role of sermons in defiance of a key Protestant belief. In terms of public policy she favoured pragmatism in dealing with religious matters.

The question of her legitimacy was a key concern: For this reason alone, it was never in serious doubt that Elizabeth would embrace Protestantism. Elizabeth and her advisers perceived the threat of a Catholic crusade against heretical England. Elizabeth therefore sought a Protestant solution that would not offend Catholics too greatly while addressing the desires of English Protestants; she would not tolerate the more radical Puritans though, who were pushing for far-reaching reforms.

The House of Commons backed the proposals strongly, but the bill of supremacy met opposition in the House of Lordsparticularly from the bishops.

"I am married to England."

Elizabeth was fortunate that many bishoprics were vacant at the time, including the Archbishopric of Canterbury. Nevertheless, Elizabeth was forced to accept the title of Supreme Governor of the Church of England rather than the more contentious title of Supreme Headwhich many thought unacceptable for a woman to bear.

Did Queen Elizabeth 1 Get Married

The new Act of Supremacy became law on 8 May All public officials were to swear an oath of loyalty to the monarch as the supreme governor or risk disqualification from office; the heresy laws were repealed, to avoid a repeat of the persecution of dissenters practised by Mary. At the same time, a new Act of Uniformity was passed, which made attendance at church and the use of an adapted version of the Book of Common Prayer compulsory, though the penalties for recusancyor Did Queen Elizabeth 1 Get Married to attend and conform, were not extreme.

From the start of Elizabeth's reign, it was expected that she would marry and the question arose to whom. Although she received many offers for her hand, she never married and was childless; the reasons for this are not clear. Historians have speculated that Thomas Seymour had put her off sexual relationships, or that she knew herself to be infertile. Her last courtship was with Francis, Duke of Anjou22 years her junior. While risking possible loss of power like her sister, who played into the hands of King Philip II of Spainmarriage offered the chance of an heir.

In the spring ofit became evident that Elizabeth was in love with her childhood friend Robert Dudley. However, William Cecil, Nicholas Throckmortonand some conservative peers made their disapproval unmistakably clear. Among other marriage candidates being considered for the queen, Robert Dudley continued to be regarded as a possible candidate for nearly another decade.

He finally remarried into which the queen reacted with repeated scenes of displeasure and lifelong hatred towards his wife, Lettice Knollys. After Elizabeth's own death, a note from him was found among her most personal belongings, marked "his last letter" in her handwriting. Marriage negotiations constituted a key element in Elizabeth's foreign policy.

InElizabeth told an imperial envoy: They urged the queen to marry or nominate an heir, to prevent a civil war upon her death.

She refused to do either. In April she prorogued the Parliament, which did not reconvene until she needed its support to raise taxes in Having promised to marry previously, she told an unruly House:.

I will never break the word of a prince spoken in public place, for my honour's sake.